Diocletian’s complete name, found in official inscriptions, is given as Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus. Llevó a cabo la persecución más sangrienta de los cristianos en el Imperio Romano. He instituted lasting administrative, military, and financial reforms and introduced a short-lived system of power sharing between four rulers, two augusti and two caesars (the tetrarchy). Diocles, who would become known to history as Diocletian, was born of humble origins on December 22, 245 CE in the Balkan province of Dalmatia. He designated Aper as the criminal and killed him personally. Nacido en el seno de una humilde familia iliria, Cayo Aurelio Valerio Diocleciano emprendió una carrera militar que, sin ser excesivamente brillante, le permitió convertirse primero en comandante de la guardia imperial y más tarde en cónsul. function citaurl() { var x = location.href; document.getElementById("urlcita").innerHTML = x;} Up to the time of his accession, Diocletian had lived most of his life in military camps. The rest of the empire was obedient to Numerian’s brother Carinus. Like many of those who preceded him, after entering the military, he rose quickly through the ranks, eventually becoming a member of an elite corps within the Illyrian army. In reality, Numerian had died either a natural death or from a stroke of lightning. Diocleciano (Cayo Aurelio Valerio Diocleciano) nació cerca de Saloma (actual Croacia), en la costa de Dalmacia, en el año 244. En el 305, ya enfermo, renunció a sus responsabilidades políticas, abdicó en favor de Galerio y obligó a Maximiano a hacer otro tanto en beneficio de Constancio Cloro, padre del futuro emperador Constantino el Grande. His father was a scribe or the emancipated slave of a senator called Anullinus. Save 50% off a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. La enciclopedia biográfica en línea. Professor of Latin Language and Literature, University of Besançon, France. En ambas partes del imperio los tetrarcas obtuvieron grandes victorias militares: aplastaron la rebelión de Carausio en Britania (296), acabaron con las revueltas sociales de Egipto (297) y fijaron la frontera romana en el río Tigris, tras derrotar a los persas (298). . Like his predecessors, Diocletian promoted the cult of the emperor but also explicitly associated himself and his co-augustus, Maximian, with Jove and Hercules, respectively. Black Friday Sale! After having put down a revolt by Julianus, a troop commander in Pannonia, whom he attacked and killed near Verona, Carinus proceeded to attack Diocletian. Acclaimed emperor on November 17, 284, Diocletian possessed real power only in those countries that were dominated by his army (i.e., in Asia Minor and possibly Syria). Diocleciano fue un destacado soldado de procedencia iliria, el cual se abrió […] Dedicado a la vida contemplativa, que sólo abandonó para intentar solucionar sin éxito las disputas existentes entre los tetrarcas (307), murió en su retiro de Spalato en el 316. The only definite fact known about Diocletian during this period is that he was among those army chiefs whom Carinus gathered, together with the Illyrians, to fight against the Persians. An indecisive battle near the confluence of the Margus (modern Morava) and Danube rivers, not far from present-day Belgrade, would have been a defeat for Diocletian had Carinus not been assassinated by a group of soldiers. At the urging of the caesar Galerius, in 303 Diocletian began the last major persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire, resulting in the destruction of churches and the torture and execution of Christians who refused to sacrifice to the Roman gods. Omissions? Suo padre, uno scriba, gli aveva appena insegnato a leggere e scrivere, ma l’educazione del giovane era ben lontana da quella dei rampolli delle famiglie aristocratiche, che ricevevano invece la formazione classica, la cosiddetta “paideia”. var f=new Date();document.write(f.getDate() + " de " + meses[f.getMonth()] + " de " + f.getFullYear());. Recuperado de Aquel mismo año, a fin de acabar con las usurpaciones militares y las tendencias centrífugas que amenazaban con desmembrar el imperio, Diocleciano decidió asociar al poder a otro oficial ilirio de su confianza, Maximiano, a quien cedió el control de la mitad occidental del imperio, primero con el título de césar y después con el de augusto Herculius (286). Procedente de una humilde familia iliria se inició tempranamente en la vida militar participando en numerosas campañas, en la frontera danubiana, en la Galia y combatiendo a los persas, que le permitieron convertirse primero en comandante de la guardia imperial y más tarde en cónsul. Aper’s guilt was accepted by contemporaries, but it was also true that a prediction had been made to Diocletian previously, telling him that he would become emperor on the day he killed a boar (Latin: aper). window.onload=function comocitar() {citapers();citaurl();} function citapers() { var x = document.getElementsByTagName("title"); document.getElementById("perscita").innerHTML = x[0].innerHTML;} Así, Diocleciano, que había fijado su capital en Nicomedia, se ocupó de la parte de Oriente; Galerio, que residía en Sirmio, atendió los asuntos de las zonas situadas al sur del Danubio, desde los Alpes hasta el Mar Negro; Maximiano, que alternaba residencia entre Milán y Aquileia, tenía a su cargo África, Hispania e Italia; y, por último, Constancio Cloro vigilaba desde Tréveris a las Galias y Britania. His reorganization of the fiscal, administrative, and military machinery of the empire laid the foundation for the Byzantine Empire in the East and temporarily shored up the decaying empire in the West. En Biografías y Vidas. Galerius, who succeeded Diocletian as augustus in 305, continued the persecution until 311. Biografía de Diocleciano Cayo Aurelio Valerio Diocleciano (244 d. C – 316 d. C) Nació en Salona, Dalmacia (actual Croacia). Diocletian was an adherent of the traditional Roman religion involving worship of the pantheon of deities including Jove (Jupiter), Mars, Apollo, and others. Updates? Diocletian’s biography has been obscured by legends, rhetoric, the dubiousness of documents, and the hostility of his adversaries. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Diocletian, Ancient History Encyclopedia - Biography of Diocletian, Catholic Encyclopedia - Biography of Diocletian. The gens name Aurelius did not appear until March 1, 286—that is, until after his accession. In 284, during that campaign, Numerian, Carinus’s brother and coemperor, was found dead in his litter, and his adoptive father, the praetorian prefect Aper, was accused of having killed him in order to seize power. Se reservó para sí el gobierno de la mitad oriental y la dignidad de augusto Iovius, la cual, al vincularlo a Júpiter, la principal divinidad romana, le confería un poder superior al de Maximiano. Later, his abilities were rewarded when he became an army commander in Moesia, a northern Balkan province located just west of the Black Sea. El índice del trabajo es: breve biografía de Diocleciano; la persecución y la bibliografía. Desaparecido Carino, coemperador y hermano de Numeriano, el Senado le reconoció la dignidad imperial un año más tarde, en el 285. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? He received the name Diocles first, then the name Valerius, after the name of his daughter, Valeria, who married Galerius in 293. These may have been either in Gaul, as reported in the Historia Augusta, or in Moesia. Diocles, having adopted the name Diocletianus, entered history like so many of those emperors who emerged from the shadows through force of arms, brought to power by the army. Little is known of his origins. Se enroló en el ejército y pasó los primeros años de su vida en incesantes campañas a lo largo de la frontera del Danubio, en la Galia y luchando contra los persas. ¿Desea reproducir alguna biografía en su web. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Diocleciano (Cayo Aurelio Valerio Diocleciano; Salona, actual Croacia, h. 245 - Spalato, hoy Split, id., 316) Emperador romano (284-305). With the death of Aper, however, Diocletian was relieved of an eventual competitor and, retroactively, his act had been granted sacred meaning. La bipolarización de la autoridad imperial dio buenos resultados, pues Maximiano reprimió el movimiento bagauda surgido en las Galias, mientras Diocleciano recuperaba Armenia, aprovechando en beneficio propio las divisiones internas de los persas. Thus, in midsummer of 285, Diocletian became master of the empire. From these it appears that he was tall and thin, with a large forehead, a short, strong nose, a hard mouth, and a determined chin. Or he may have been a member of the Roman emperor Carinus’s bodyguard. Diocletian, Roman emperor (284–305 CE) who restored efficient government to the empire after the near anarchy of the 3rd century. Así, por ejemplo, recortó la autoridad del Senado, transformó las 57 provincias existentes en 96 y las agrupó en 12 diócesis, separó en cada provincia el gobierno civil del militar para impedir las usurpaciones imperiales y estableció nuevos impuestos, tanto territoriales como personales (capitación).
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